Companion animals: can they alleviate loneliness among older adults?

The Bottom Line

  • Social isolation and loneliness pose serious health risks for older adults.
  • Companion animals and animal-assisted therapies can improve the physical and mental health of older adults, and animal-assisted therapies appear promising to alleviate loneliness among older adults.
  • Adopting or offering a pet, however, should not be done lightly and should be done after careful consideration of the needs and capacities of older adults, regulations in residences and care settings, and the risks associated with some animals.

Social bonds are essential to health. And yet, our social networks tend to shrink as we get older, which can lead to loneliness. Loneliness can be transient and associated with significant life events, but it can also be aggravated when our physical and cognitive abilities prevent us from socializing. Loneliness can have serious health consequences, partly because it promotes a sedentary lifestyle. It is an equally important risk factor for premature death as smoking, obesity or lack of physical activity.(1)

But coping with loneliness is not easy. Are companion animals part of the solution?

What the research tells us

Many studies have examined the effects of companion animals and animal-assisted therapies on the health of older adults. These studies looked at the effects of dogs, cats, birds, fishes and even interactive robot-seals! These studies generally reveal that companion animals and animal-assisted therapies can improve the physical, emotional and social well-being of older adults. Some studies show that pets help relieve stress and anxiety, reduce blood pressure, emotionally stimulate older adults, promote memories of past experiences, encourage older adults to move and stay active, and improve difficult behaviours of people living with Alzheimer and dementia.(2)

Some studies have also examined the effectiveness of companion animals to alleviate loneliness among older adults. A systematic review revealed that there are still few methodologically sound studies that have examined this issue, but there is evidence that animal-assisted therapies are promising for reducing loneliness (although this positive effect may be due to some aspects of the therapies rather than to the animals). (3) Other studies also highlighted that animals can help older adults feel useful (and have a sense of purpose), encourage them to talk, encourage loving physical contact, and act as a social catalyst to help connect and talk to others. It has also been demonstrated that the presence of animals can make a positive difference in bereavement and ease the transition to a new home (events that usually exacerbate loneliness among older adults).(4)

Animals have the potential to be faithful companions in our old age. But the decision to adopt or offer a companion animal should not be taken lightly. It is important to consider the needs and capacities of older adults to care for these animals, but also the risks associated with the presence of animals (whether it is the risk of falls if the older adults are frail and have balance problems, as well as the risk of bites or infections). The loss of a companion animal (whether following the death of the animal or the placement of the older adult in a residence that does not accept animals) can generate distress among older adults. The possibility of having a companion animal should therefore be considered in the assessment before entering a residence or care facility. The animal may represent a relationship with a deceased spouse, a valuable source of companionship and emotional support, as well as a life choice for the older adult.(4) We must therefore proceed with love and respect with these companion animals.

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Author Details


  1. Menec V. Loneliness and social isolation are important health risks in the elderly. McMaster Optimal Aging Portal, Hamilton: Canada, 2016. [cited in October 2018]. Available at:
  2. Cherniack EP and Cherniack AR. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals. Current Gerontology and Gerontological Research, 2014: 1-9.
  3.  Gilbey A, Tani K. Companion animals and loneliness: A systematic review of quantitative studies. Anthrozoös. 2015;28(2):181-197.
  4. McNicholas J. The role of pets in the lives of older people: A review. Working with Older People, 18(3): 128-133.

DISCLAIMER: These summaries are provided for informational purposes only. They are not a substitute for advice from your own health care professional. The summaries may be reproduced for not-for-profit educational purposes only. Any other uses must be approved by the McMaster Optimal Aging Portal (

Many of our Blog Posts were written before the COVID-19 pandemic and thus do not necessarily reflect the latest public health recommendations. While the content of new and old blogs identify activities that support optimal aging, it is important to defer to the most current public health recommendations. Some of the activities suggested within these blogs may need to be modified or avoided altogether to comply with changing public health recommendations. To view the latest updates from the Public Health Agency of Canada, please visit their website.