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Women's health

Throughout their lives, women face a variety of conditions and health issues specific to their biology and social circumstances. Common health challenges for older adult women include breast cancer, menopause, and urinary incontinence. We’ve referenced the latest research to give you evidence-based information about these conditions and others, to help you age well.

Urinary incontinence in aging females: When can medications help?
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News 'flash' for women: the latest findings on hormone therapy for menopause & heart disease
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Vaginal estrogen relieves common menopause symptoms
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  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Risks and benefits, age 50-69

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    Your risk of dying from breast cancer is slightly reduced if you have regular screening. However, regular screening increase your chance of a false positive result, a biopsy and having part or all of a breast removed unnecessarily.
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    Breast cancer: Screening guideline video

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    Women ages 50-74 should have a mammogram every 2 to 3 years, if they are not at high risk of breast cancer. Discuss with your doctor whether you should have a mammogram if you are over age 75.
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    Breast pain

    Mayo Clinic
    Breast pain affects many women and is often caused by hormone changes. Breast pain is unlikely a sign of breast cancer. Choose a well-fitting bra, try hot or cold compresses, relaxation and pain relievers. Speak to your doctor if the pain persists or gets worse over time.
  • Evidence Summary

    Feedback or biofeedback to augment pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence in women

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2011)
  • Evidence Summary

    Behavioral interventions for improving contraceptive use among women living with HIV

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2013)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cervical cancer: Patient algorithm

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    A Pap test screens for cervical cancer. It recommended that sexually active women under the age of 70 have one every 3 years. Screening is not recommended for those older than 70 if your last 3 Pap tests were negative.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cervical cancer: Patient FAQ

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommends women over the age of 25 get a Pap test every three years to screen for cervical cancer. This resource includes information about the Pap test and what an abnormal test result means.
  • Evidence Summary

    Long-term hormone therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2017)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Uterine (endometrial) cancer

    Patient.co.uk
    Uterine cancer is most likely to occur in women in their 50s and 60s. If uterine cancer is found at an early stage, there is a good chance of a cure. Talk to your doctor if you experience vaginal bleeding past menopause, bleeding between periods, or bleeding after sex.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Making sense of the menopause: Experience, evidence and you

    Evidently Cochrane
    Access to support and reliable information about menopause can help women prepare for this time in their lives. This resource provides links to interviews and blogs in which women share their personal experiences.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Vaginal dryness

    UpToDate - patient information
    Vaginal dryness can affect any woman but it is most common after menopause. Symptoms may include burning, itching, pain during sex and abnormal vaginal discharge. Treatments include vaginal moisturizers, vaginal lubricants and vaginal estrogen. Speak with your doctor to learn more about which treatment might be right for you.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Mammogram screening guidelines

    Our Bodies, Ourselves
    The United States Preventive Task Force (USPSTF) recommends women over 40 talk to their doctor about the benefits and harms of getting a mammogram. Women between 50 and 74 should get a mammogram every two years. Check your local guidelines for more information.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer screening

    Health Link B.C.
    If you are between 50 and 74 years of age, you should have regular mammograms to test for breast cancer every 2-3 years. If you are over the age of 75, talk to your doctor before going for breast cancer screening.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cervical Cancer: Screening

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
    The US Preventive Services Task Force does not recommend that women over the age of 65 get screened for cervical cancer unless they are at high risk or have not been screened before. Cervical cancer screening is not recommended for women who have had a hysterectomy and removal of the cervix.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for cervical cancer

    Canadian Cancer Society
    You may be at a higher risk for cervical cancer if you have genital warts, HPV, a weak immune system, or other cancers in the anus or vulva. Talk to your doctor about your risk and your need for pap or HPV tests. Links in this resource to diagnosis & treatment information, as well as questions to ask your doctor.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Pap test

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Pap tests every 1-3 years are recommended for women over the age of 21 who have been sexually active. Talk to your doctor about whether you need a pap test if you are over age 69 or have had a hysterectomy. Learn about preparing for a pap test, the risks and results in this resource.
  • Evidence Summary

    Short-term and long-term effects of tibolone in postmenopausal women.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2016)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer screening

    UpToDate - patient information
    Breast cancer screening includes tests to find breast cancer at an early stage. The chance of dying from breast cancer has declined over the past few years, partly because of screening. This website reviews different types of screening as well as how often to go.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Early stage breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women

    UpToDate - patient information
    Breast cancer found early can often be cured. This resource gives information about different breast cancer treatment options for postmenopausal women.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Early stage breast cancer treatment in premenopausal women

    UpToDate - patient information
    Breast cancer found early can often be cured. This resource gives information about different breast cancer treatment options for premenopausal women.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer screening: When should I start having mammograms?

    Health Link B.C.
    Use this decision aid to help understand your choices about breast cancer screening, including the risks and benefits of mammograms.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Patient algorithm

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommends women between 50 and 74 years old who are not at high risk get screened for breast cancer every 2 to 3 years. Talk to your doctor about screening options if you are at high risk or over 74 years old.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Patient FAQ

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    This resource includes frequently asked questions about breast cancer, including: Who is considered high risk? What are the harms associated with mammography? and Why is routine screening NOT recommended for women 40-49 years?
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Risks and benefits, age 70-74

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    Your chances of dying from breast cancer can be lowered by having regular screening. There are risks related to mammograms however, including false positives, unnecessary biopsies or surgery.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Pelvic pain in women

    Patient.co.uk
    There are many causes of pelvic pain in women, including bowel, bladder, muscle and bone problems. Visit your doctor if you have recurring or severe pelvic pain.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Routine ovarian cancer screening not beneficial

    Our Bodies, Ourselves
    Annual screening is not recommended for women at average risk for developing ovarian cancer, and may lead to false positive results. Instead, watch for physical changes like bloating or pelvic pain. Resource includes a short video.
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    Can sentinel node assessment help women with vulval cancer avoid unnecessary surgery?

    Evidently Cochrane
    Women with vulval cancer and groin metastases may require surgery. A type of test called a sentinel node assessment can lower the need for surgery by 70%. Speak with your doctor about your options.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Hormone therapy: will it help or harm your heart?

    Evidently Cochrane
    Hormone therapy treatment does little to prevent heart disease in post-menopausal women, although the benefits might be greater for women who start sooner after menopause. It does increase risk of stroke. Talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of this treatment option.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Adjuvant medical therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer

    UpToDate - patient information
    Women with HER2 positive breast cancer tumours may benefit from chemotherapy and targeted treatment. Read about treatment options here and discuss your options with your doctor.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Hormone therapy for the menopause after endometriosis surgery - friend or foe?

    Evidently Cochrane
    There is not enough research to deny hormone therapy to women who have had their ovaries removed. However, there is also no evidence that hormone therapy helps decrease pain or lower the risk of more surgery. More research is needed.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Why didn't they tell me?

    Evidently Cochrane
    Little high quality information is available about whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women with type 1 diabetes affects management of blood sugar and menopause symptoms. This resource provides one woman's perspective on the issue.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for breast cancer

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Women aged 50-69 should have a mammogram to test for breast cancer every two years. If you are over 70, talk to your doctor to decide if you should continue. If breast cancer runs in your family, you may need more frequent tests. This resource includes questions to ask your healthcare team.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Women, embrace the power of your pelvic floor!

    Evidently Cochrane
    Women who do pelvic floor muscle training are more likely to report being cured of urinary incontinence. It may also help with urine leaks.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Digital mammography: Is newer always better?

    National Women’s Health Network
    Film and digital mammograms are not very different from each other. Both are just as accurate at detecting breast cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for ovarian cancer: Consumer fact sheet

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
    Women who are not at risk for ovarian cancer should avoid ovarian screening. Ovarian screening can give false-positive results which can lead to unnecessary surgery. Talk to your doctor about your individual risk factors and preferences before making a decision about cancer screening.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Your treatment, your choice

    Evidently Cochrane
    Treatment options for breast cancer include medications, chemotherapy and surgery. Recent evidence shows the drug trastuzumab (Herceptin®) can reduce cancer progression by more than one third. Speak with your doctor about treatment options, talk to other patients about their experiences, understand the latest evidence on breast cancer treatments and use a decision aid (links in this resource).
  • Web Resource Rating

    Medication for the risk reduction of primary breast cancer in women

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
    Tamoxifen and raloxifene can help reduce the risk of breast cancer, but have dangerous side-effects including increased risk of blood clots, cataracts and other cancers. Talk to your doctor about whether you are at risk of breast cancer and the best ways to reduce your risk.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Kidney infection

    Mayo Clinic
    Kidney infections require prompt medical attention. Talk to your doctor if you experience fever, back/side/groin/abdominal pain, frequent urination, strong urge to urinate, burning sensation when urinating, or pus or blood in your urine.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cysts

    Mayo Clinic
    Breast cysts are common. Your doctor might recommend tests to make sure that the cysts are not cancerous. If the cysts are causing pain, try a well-fitting bra, warm or cool compresses, or over-the-counter pain medication if necessary. Your doctor might recommend aspiration to empty the cysts.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast lump: Early evaluation is essential

    Mayo Clinic
    Breast lumps are common. Inform your doctor if you find a new lump, if a lump changes over time or causes pain, or if you notice changes in your nipple. Tests such as a mammogram, ultrasound or MRI may be recommended. You may also need a biopsy.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer guide to diagnosis and treatment

    UpToDate - patient information
    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the US. The death rate has declined, partly due to increased screening and improved treatment. When found and treated early it is often curable. This website gives information about diagnosing and treating breast cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer

    UpToDate - patient information
    A family history of breast or ovarian cancer can increase your risk of getting the disease. Consider genetic counseling and testing if you are at high risk. Women with BRCA gene mutations are often advised to have more frequent cancer screening.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Pelvic floor exercises: What do these women have in common?

    Evidently Cochrane
    Studies have found that pelvic floor exercises help women who have problems with bladder control. Women leaked less often and in smaller amounts and didn't need to empty their bladders as often.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Bladder control problems in women: Lifestyle strategies for relief

    Mayo Clinic
    Behaviour therapies (or lifestyle modifications) can help improve bladder control problems. Avoid drinking too little or too much fluid and cut back on bladder irritants (caffeine, alcohol, acidic fruits). Some medications, excess weight, smoking and physical inactivity also affect bladder control.
  • Web Resource Rating

    "Don't make me laugh": Incontinence isn't funny

    Evidently Cochrane
    Use pelvic floor muscle training to help prevent and treat urinary incontinence. Other types of treatments for urinary incontinence include bladder training, medicines and continence pessaries.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Which approach to breast cancer is right for you?

    Our Bodies, Ourselves
    Women with cancer can now opt for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). This option is for women with cancer who choose to remove their healthy breast. Details about the pros and cons of this approach in this resource.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Factors that modify breast cancer risk in women

    UpToDate - patient information
    Lower your risk of breast cancer by exercising, not smoking and eating healthy. Environment, some medications and estrogen exposure can increase your risk. Some of the things you cannot change about your risk are age, gender, ethnicity, and family history. Regular screenings help reduce your risk of dying of cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Benefits and limitations of mammography

    Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation
    Mammograms to detect breast cancer can lead to better treatment success, but also more tests, false negatives and over-treatment. Talk to your doctor about your risk factors when choosing whether to have a mammogram.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Common breast problems

    UpToDate - patient information
    Breast lumps, breast pain, nipple discharge and changes in breast skin are common breast problems. They can occur at all ages and for many different reasons. See your doctor if you develop any changes in your breasts.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Women with diabetes: Double the heart risk

    Berkeley Wellness
    Women with diabetes have double the heart disease risk as men with the disease. Women with diabetes should take care to avoid heart health risks like obesity, high cholesterol and physical inactivity.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Male condoms

    Our Bodies, Ourselves
    Condoms protect against sexually transmitted infections. Carry condoms with you and use them correctly. This resource includes frequently asked questions about using condoms.
  • Evidence Summary

    Bioidentical hormones for women with vasomotor symptoms.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2016)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Menopause and bladder control problems

    WebMD
    Bladder control problems are common after menopause. Changes to your lifestyle (exercise, weight loss, limiting caffeine) can help. Talk to your doctor about other treatment options.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Hot flashes

    National Women’s Health Network
    Hot flashes are a common symptom of menopause. Sip cold fluids, limit foods that trigger hot flashes, pace your breathing or try acupuncture. Try non-hormone options first and research the risks of treatment options such as hormone therapy.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Hair loss

    Mayo Clinic
    Hair loss can affect men and women and is more common as we age. Effective treatments include medications, surgery or laser therapy. Wigs or hairpieces are an alternative. A healthy diet and treating your hair gently can help prevent hair loss. See your doctor if you have sudden or patchy loss of hair.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Facts about breast implants

    Our Bodies, Ourselves
    Risks of breast implants include breakage, numbness in the breast or nipples, infection and the need for more surgeries. Breast implants may also delay detection of breast cancer. Talk with your doctor and understand the risks before you decide to undergo surgery.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Women's health: Prevent the top threats

    Mayo Clinic
    Many common health risks for women (such as heart disease and stroke) are preventable. Choose a healthy diet, exercise regularly, avoid smoking, reduce stress, maintain a healthy weight and manage chronic conditions (like diabetes or high blood pressure).
  • Web Resource Rating

    Urinary incontinence

    Patient.co.uk
    Urinary incontinence is when you pass urine (pee) without meaning to. Treatment depends on the cause. Cut down on caffeine, avoid drinking late at night, lose weight if overweight, avoid constipation and ask your doctor about what might be causing incontinence.
  • Web Resource Rating

    No sex please, we're menopausal!

    Evidently Cochrane
    Hormone change after menopause can affect your sex life. Details in this resource about common issues and treatments. Hormone replacement therapy may help, but it has risks and benefits. Talk about sexual issues with your doctor and partner.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Risk reduction strategies for vaginal cancer

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Get the HPV vaccine, limit your sexual partners and use a condom to lower your risk of vaginal cancer. Have regular pap tests and avoid smoking. This resource includes questions to ask your doctor about vaginal cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Herbs and phytoestrogens

    National Women’s Health Network
    Natural alternatives to hormone therapy such as phytoestrogens and herbs are sometimes used to treat menopause symptoms, but not all are safe and some may be harmful. More research is needed.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Menopause hormone therapy and breast cancer

    National Women’s Health Network
    Hormone therapy for menopause can increase the risk of cancer and blood clots. Hormone therapy should only be used as a last resort for severe menopause symptoms and only for a short time.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Menopause hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    National Women’s Health Network
    Hormone therapy can treat menopause symptoms but may also increase your risk of cancer. It does not decrease risk of heart disease.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Natural hormones at menopause

    National Women’s Health Network
    Natural hormones are often used by women going through menopause, but are not always safe even though they are natural. Estriol, DHEA, melatonin and natural progesterone may help menopause symptoms but also have risks. Be skeptical of products which claim to slow aging.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Herbs and supplements for menopause

    HealthLine
    Some herbs and supplements - including soy, black cohosh, HMR lignans, chasteberry and omega-3 fatty acids - may help relieve symptoms of menopause by acting like estrogen.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Mammography

    National Women’s Health Network
    Women under the age of 50 should decide whether or not to screen for breast cancer based on personal risk and context. Women aged 50 to 74 should receive regular breast cancer screening.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Hormone therapy for menopause symptoms

    Informed Health Online
    Hormone therapy for menopause can help in the short-term to treat menopause symptoms like hot flashes and sweats. Long-term hormone therapy is not recommended because of serious side-effects like increased risk of blood clots, stroke and breast cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cervical cancer screening

    Cancer Care Ontario
    Cervical cancer screening is the only way to find early changes in a women's cervix that might lead to cancer. The Ontario Cervical Screening Program recommends that women age 21 or older who are or have been sexually active get a Pap test every three years.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Follow-up care

    Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation
    Follow-up care is important after breast cancer treatment is over. It is recommended you visit your doctor for a check-up every three to six months for three years after you complete your treatment, every six to twelve months for the next two years, and once a year after that. Tell your doctor about any new symptoms or any treatment side effects that do not go away.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Relieving menopause symptoms on your own

    Informed Health Online
    There is no conclusive research about how diet choices, exercise, relaxation techniques, herbal supplements or alternative therapies affect menopause symptoms. Use caution if you try herbal supplements and alternative therapies to treat menopause symptoms; some of these can have serious side effects.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Menopause

    Informed Health Online
    Menopause symptoms (hot flashes, sweats) will usually go away without treatment. Complementary medicines have not been proven to help. Lubricants can help with vaginal dryness. Talk to your doctor about whether hormone therapy is right for you.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Let's talk about sex! Keeping intimacy alive at midlife and beyond

    Healthy Women
    Menopause can signal changes to a woman's sexual arousal and enjoyment. To help increase sexual response, practice non-sexual intimacy, share household chores, have planned intimacy and communicate.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Women and hair loss: Coping tips

    NHS Choices
    Losing your hair can be traumatic. Cope with hair loss by trying to accept it and talking to others about it. Consider masking your hair loss with wigs and scarves, but avoid so-called "miracle cures". Talk to your doctor about treatment options that may be right for you.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Menopause hormone therapy and heart disease

    National Women’s Health Network
    Hormone therapy does not prevent heart disease and may increase your risk of a heart attack, stroke or blood clots. Reduce your risk by being active and not smoking. Manage your blood pressure, cholesterol and weight.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Menopause, hormone therapy & aging skin: Is there a connection?

    National Women’s Health Network
    Hormone therapies are unlikely to prevent wrinkles, skin dryness or sagging. The estrogen in hormone therapies can actually cause a dark spotting on the skin. Quit smoking and use sunscreen to help prevent early skin aging.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Menopause hormone therapy: Timing doesn’t matter

    National Women’s Health Network
    Menopause hormone therapy does not help improve heart health or blood pressure levels. It also likely does not help improve memory and mood.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Heart screenings for women should be as routine as pap tests

    National Women’s Health Network
    Heart disease can be prevented. Ask your doctor if your family history and body mass index put you at risk, and about cardiovascular screening tests, aspirin safety and other ways you can lower your risk.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Finding uterine cancer early

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Symptoms of uterine cancer include: vaginal bleeding between periods, after menopause, and/or with intercourse, pain during intercourse, unusual vaginal discharge or pelvic pain. Refer to this resource for factors that put you at higher risk for uterine cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cervical cancer prevention and screening

    National Women’s Health Network
    Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Reduce your risk: get regular health care checkups and use condoms for sex. Check your local guidelines for cervical cancer screening recommendations in your country.
  • Web Resource Rating

    New zinc supplement zytaze is a 'botox-booster'

    NHS Choices
    A small study has found that a new zinc supplement may help boost the effect of botox, however more research is needed to confirm these results. Talk to your doctor before using any supplement in combination with botox injections.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Bladder control problems in women: Seek treatment

    Mayo Clinic
    Talk to your doctor if you have bladder control problems, such as an increased need to urinate and frequent urine leakage. Be sure to provide your doctor with a detailed medical history and record of your urinary habits and symptoms (a bladder diary) to help determine the cause of the problems.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Hyperplasia of the breast

    Mayo Clinic
    Atypical hyperplasia is a precancerous condition that affects cells in the breast. Treatment usually involves surgery to remove the abnormal cells. Breast cancer screening is highly recommended.
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    Menopause: Time for a change

    National Institute on Aging
    Menopause signs include hot flashes, night sweats, drier skin, problems sleeping, and changes in mood, body shape, memory and desire to have sex. Tips in this resource to ease menopause symptoms and stay healthy after menopause.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Menopause

    National Institute on Aging
    Menopause signs include changes in your period, hot flashes, trouble with sleep and mood changes. See your doctor if you see heavy bleeding. Stay healthy after menopause and quit smoking, eat healthy, be active and have regular screenings for cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Sexuality and physical changes with aging: Common physical changes in women

    Health Link B.C.
    Physical changes due to aging can affect women's sex life, including shorter orgasms, irritation during sex and taking longer to become sexually aroused. You can find ways to enjoy sex despite these changes.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Living well with arthritis

    Society for Women’s Health Research
    Arthritis is a common problem, especially among women and older people. There is no cure, but over-the-counter pain medications may help reduce arthritis symptoms.
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    When is a hysterectomy needed?

    Our Bodies, Ourselves
    A hysterectomy may be recommended for life-threatening conditions such as invasive cancers, severe pelvic inflammatory disease, uterine bleeding or childbirth complications. Many conditions can be better treated with other therapies.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Urinary incontinence in women

    WebMD
    Urinary incontinence is more common in women. Try drinking less, emptying your bladder regularly, and doing Kegel exercises. Talk to your doctor about more serious bladder control problems.
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    Breast cancer screening

    Cancer Care Ontario
    Finding breast cancer early means a better chance for successful treatment and the cancer is less likely to spread. Mammograms are used as a breast cancer screening tool.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Essential screening tests every woman needs

    WebMD
    Talk to your doctor about the screening tests that are right for you. Many diseases are easier to treat when they are detected early. Screening tests are available for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, high blood pressure and cholesterol, HIV/AIDS, and glaucoma.
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    Can folic acid and B-vitamins reduce a woman’s risk of heart attack?

    WebMD
    High levels of homocysteine are a predictor of cardiovascular risk. Folic acid and vitamin B can reduce homocysteine levels. New trials are being done to see if lowering homocysteine levels help reduce cardiovascular risk.
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    Health in Your 60s

    Healthy Women
    Think positively about aging, consider your risk factors for chronic diseases that commonly set in after age 60 and make lifestyle changes to lower your risk. Write a list of questions and concerns to bring to your doctor and be sure to ask about which screening tests you may need.
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    Women and stroke: Knowing saves lives

    Healthy Women
    The onset of stroke requires immediate action in order to minimize damage. This fact sheet provides information on warning signs, risk factors and life after stroke. If you see someone or recognize yourself having a stroke, call 911 immediately.
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    Get enough calcium

    HealthFinder
    Make sure you get enough calcium by eating foods that are high in calcium or by by taking calcium supplements. If you are a woman, make sure you get around 1200 mg per day.
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    Ovarian cysts

    NHS Choices
    For most women, ovarian cysts are nothing to worry about and will go away with time. But talk to your doctor if you have pain or pressure in your lower abdomen or pelvis, especially if you have these symptoms after menopause.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cosmetic surgery: Is It right for you?

    NHS Choices
    Don't have cosmetic surgery on a whim! Cosmetic surgery is a big decision. Explore why you want the surgery and consider counselling to help you make an informed decision.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer aware

    NHS Choices
    Get to know how your breasts look and feel. Check them regularly and be aware of changes. Talk to your doctor if you do notice any changes.
  • Blog Post

    Vaginal estrogen relieves common menopause symptoms

    Menopause may be a natural and inevitable phase in a woman’s life but it often comes with uncomfortable and irritating symptoms. Vaginal estrogen is an effective treatment option.
  • Blog Post

    News 'flash' for women: the latest findings on hormone therapy for menopause & heart disease

    For years hormone therapy was the “go to” for relieving symptoms of menopause; it was also believed to protect against age-related diseases. Recent evidence sheds a clearer light on how hormone therapy impacts heart health.
  • Blog Post

    Vitamin D and calcium: A dynamic duo in the maintenance of strong bones

    Calcium and vitamin D supplements help keep bones healthy and may reduce the risk of bone breaks in older adults.
  • Blog Post

    Urinary incontinence in aging females: When can medications help?

    Urinary incontinence is a very common problem in aging women. When conservative measures (pelvic floor training, lifestyle changes) don't work some drugs can help for some types of incontinence.

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