What is frozen shoulder?

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a painful condition that can be triggered by an injury or surgery and can be associated with certain conditions such as diabetes, thyroid problems, and Parkinson disease. In this 2-minute video, Dr. Raj Carmona discusses what frozen shoulder is and what its three distinct phases are.


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  1. McMaster Optimal Aging Portal. In people with frozen shoulder, steroid injections reduce pain and improve shoulder mobility for up to 6 months. (2017 Oct 7). Accessed January 28, 2022. Available from: https://www.mcmasteroptimalaging.org/full-article/es/people-frozen-shoulder-steroid-injections-reduce-pain-improve-shoulder-mobility-1686
  2. Sun Y, Zhang P, Liu S, Li H, Jiang J, Chen S, Chen J. Intra-articular Steroid Injection for Frozen Shoulder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials With Trial Sequential Analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2017 Jul;45(9):2171-2179.
  3. Skinner HB. Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics. 5th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014.
  4. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Frozen Shoulder. (2018 Mar). Accessed January 28, 2022. Available from: https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/frozen-shoulder
  5. Dias R, Cutts S, Massoud S. Frozen shoulder. BMJ. 2005;331(7530):1453-1456.
  6. Abdelshafi ME, Yosry M, Elmulla AF, et al. Relief of chronic shoulder pain: a comparative study of three approaches. Middle East Journal of Anaesthesiology. 2011 Feb;21(1):83-92.


This work was supported through the McMaster Institute for Research on Aging and funds provided by the Dean and Vice-President, Faculty of Health Sciences at McMaster University.

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