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Public Health Article

Vitamin D supplementation and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis



Review Quality Rating: 8 (strong)

Citation: Wu C, Qiu S, Zhu X, & Li L. (2017). Vitamin D supplementation and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental, 73, 67-76.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Low vitamin D status has been found to be associated with impaired glycemic control in patients who suffer from type 2 diabetes; however, whether vitamin D supplementation is associated with improved glycemic status remains controversial. The aim of this study was to summarize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing glycosylated haemoglobinA1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels.
MATERIALS/METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library for reports published up to March 2017. We selected parallel RCTs investigating the effect of vitamin D or vitamin D analogues on HbA1c or FBG levels in type 2 diabetes patients. Cohen's d was calculated to represent the standardized mean difference (SMD) for each study, and the SMDs with 95%confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random effects model.
RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included that evaluated HbA1c levels and 18 studies were included that evaluated FBG levels. Meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation was associated with reduced HbA1c levels (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.25 [-0.45 to -0.05]) but had no influence on FBG levels (SMD -0.14 [-0.31 to 0.03]). However, the subgroup analyses suggested that vitamin D supplementation was associated with reduced HbA1c levels (SMD -0.39 [-0.67 to -0.10]) and FBG (SMD -0.27 [-0.46 to -0.07]) among patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) deficiency at baseline. Significantly reduced HbA1c levels were also observed in association with vitamin D supplementation in the subgroup including type 2 diabetes patients with a body mass index (BMI) <30kg m-2 (SMD -0.30 [-0.54 to -0.07]).
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation could be effective at improving glycemic control in vitamin D deficient or non-obese type 2 diabetes patients.


Keywords

Adults (20-59 years), Adult's Health (men's health, women's health), Behaviour Modification (e.g., provision of item/tool, incentives, goal setting), Community, Diabetes, Home, Meta-analysis, Nutrition, Senior Health, Seniors (60+ years)

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