What is an Evidence Summary?
Key messages from scientific research that's ready to be acted on
Got It, Hide this
Information and communication technology is a promising way to reduce social isolation of older adults
Chen RY-R, Schulz PJ. The effect of information communication technology interventions on reducing social isolation in the elderly: A systematic review Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2016;18:e18.
Does information and communication technology (such as phone- and Internet-based programs) help reduce social isolation among older adults?
Risk of social isolation (reduced contact with others) increases with age. Social isolation affects both mental and physical health and can lead to depression, self-harm or self-neglect and even increased risk of death. As the world’s population ages, there is an increasing need to identify effective ways to increase social interaction and reduce isolation among older adults. Technology has the potential to help older adults at risk of social isolation (e.g. living alone and/or less mobile) by connecting them with others, including family, friends and other communities.
How the review was done
This is a systematic review of 25 studies, including 6 randomized controlled trials.
- The number of participants in each study varied greatly. The smallest study had 8 participants and the largest had 5203.
- All studies included older adults (over age 55). Average age of participants in the studies ranged from 66 to 83 years.
- The studies took place in 12 different countries and included people of differing income, education, health status, living arrangements and nationality.
- All participants used some type of information and/or communication technology (ICT) to connect with others. Most included some type of Internet or web-based application (app) such as email, chat rooms or videoconference.
- Researchers measured changes in social isolation or other measures of isolation such as loneliness, number of confidants or social contacts and social support.
What the researchers found
Information and communication technology (ICT) significantly improves measures of social isolation, including social contacts, social support, social connectedness and social networks in the short term (less than 6 months). Fifteen of 18 studies found that ICT significantly reduced loneliness among older adults.
ICT may not be right for everyone. Not all approaches were beneficial for all older adults and a relatively high rate of participants dropped out of the trials. The type of ICT approach may be an important factor; some approaches risked increasing social isolation (for example, non-reciprocal or one-way communication).
Rapid changes in the types, functions and availability of ICT, as well of a lack of clarity about who might benefit most from different ICT approaches points to a growing need for research in this area.
Information and communication technology is a promising way to reduce social isolation and loneliness among older adults.
Randomized controlled trials
Studies where people are assigned to one of the treatments purely by chance.
A comprehensive evaluation of the available research evidence on a particular topic.
Related Evidence Summaries
British Journal of Psychiatry (2015)
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2016)
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2015)
Related Web Resources
Informed Health Online
Depression is a common mood disorder that can make it hard to cope with everyday life. Causes and risk factors for depression include genes, difficult experiences and life circumstances, chronic anxiety disorders, biochemical changes, medical problems, and lack of light. Psychological therapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy) and medication, alone or combination, are treatment options.
This patient decision aid helps adults diagnosed as being depressed decide on the type of medicine by comparing the benefits, risks and side effects of each antidepressant.
UpToDate - patient information
Delirium is the result of brain changes that lead to confusion, lack of focus and memory problems. There is no specific treatment for delirium - it is best to avoid risks, treat underlying illnesses and receive supportive care. Sedatives and physical restraints should be avoided.
DISCLAIMER These summaries are provided for informational purposes only. They are not a substitute for advice from your own health care professional. The summaries may be reproduced for not-for-profit educational purposes only. Any other uses must be approved by the McMaster Optimal Aging Portal