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Public Health Article

Effects of popular diets without specific calorie targets on weight loss outcomes: Systematic review of findings from clinical trials



Review Quality Rating: 8 (strong)

Citation: Anton S, Hida A, Heekin K, Sowalsky K, Karabetian C, Mutchie H, et al. (2017). Effects of popular diets without specific calorie targets on weight loss outcomes: Systematic review of findings from clinical trials. Nutrients, 9(8), E822.

Evidence Summary Article full-text (free) PubMed LinkOut

Abstract

The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (<= six months) and long-term (>= one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for 'Best Weight-Loss Diets', which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as 'low-calorie' diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1) Atkins; (2) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); (3) Glycemic-Index; (4) Mediterranean; (5) Ornish; (6) Paleolithic; and (7) Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (<= six months) and long-term (<= one-year) weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets.


Keywords

Adults (20-59 years), Adult's Health (men's health, women's health), Behaviour Modification (e.g., provision of item/tool, incentives, goal setting), Community, Home, Nutrition, Obesity, Seniors (60+ years)

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