Importance: Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin are widely used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Observational studies suggested that sensitivity of fecal immunochemical tests for detecting advanced neoplasms could be increased by acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), especially among men.
Objective: To evaluate the potential to increase sensitivity of fecal immunochemical tests by administering a single 300-mg oral aspirin dose 2 days before stool sampling.
Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 14 gastroenterology practices and 4 hospitals in Germany, and included 2422 men and women aged 40 to 80 years scheduled for colonoscopy, with no recent use of aspirin or other drugs with antithrombotic effects (enrollment from June 2013 to November 2016, and final follow-up January 27, 2017).
Interventions: Administration of a single tablet containing 300 mg of aspirin (n = 1208) or placebo (n = 1214) 2 days before fecal sampling for fecal immunochemical test.
Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was sensitivity of a quantitative fecal immunochemical test at 2 predefined cutoffs (10.2 and 17-μg Hb/g stool) for detecting advanced neoplasms (colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma).
Results: Among 2422 randomized patients (mean [SD] age, 59.6 [7.9] years; 1219, 50%, men), 2134 were included in the analysis (78% for primary screening colonoscopy, 22% for diagnostic colonoscopy). Advanced neoplasms were identified in 224 participants (10.5%), including 8 participants (0.4%) with CRC and 216 participants (10.1%) with advanced adenoma. Sensitivity was 40.2% in the aspirin group and 30.4% in the placebo group (difference 9.8%, 95% CI, -3.1% to 22.2%, P = .14) at cutoff 10.2-μg Hb/g stool and 28.6% in the aspirin and 22.5% in the placebo group (difference 6.0%, 95% CI, -5.7% to 17.5%, P = .32) at cutoff 17-μg Hb/g stool.
Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults aged 40 to 80 years not using aspirin or other antithrombotic medications, administration of a single dose of oral aspirin prior to fecal immunochemical testing, compared with placebo, did not significantly increase test sensitivity for detecting advanced colorectal neoplasms at 2 predefined cutoffs of a quantitative fecal immunochemical test.
Trial registration: Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien Identifier: DRKS00003252; EudraCT Identifier: 2011-005603-32/DE.
This is useful information on the effects of full-dose ASA on colon cancer screening testing and is helpful for most primary physicians.
This is a very important topic on effect of aspirin use on fecal occult testing results. This is a frequent issue that physicians encounter. It is important for physicians to be aware of this both in primary care and gastroenterology.
Interesting concept that needs further study. Longer duration of aspirin use may improve sensitivity.
The study showed that ASA affects the accuracy of the test by affecting sensitivity and specificity, although not significantly.