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Cancer

According to the Canadian Cancer Society, the number of newly diagnosed cancer cases in Canada is increasing. But survival rates are also increasing. From breast cancer, to colon cancer, to lung cancer and prostate cancer (to name just a few) – this disease affects us all in some shape or form. Stay up-to-date on the latest research about prevention and treatment options with our evidence-based resources.

Screening for prostate cancer: What you should know about the PSA test
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  • Web Resource Rating

    Knowing Your Options: A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps men who have been diagnosed with localized prostate cancer to decide on treatment methods. It facilitates the process by outlining and comparing the four options: active surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy, and cryoblation.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    Knowing Your Options: A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps men who have been diagnosed with localized prostate cancer to decide on treatment methods. It facilitates the process by outlining and comparing the four options: active surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy, and cryoblation.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Prostate cancer: Patient FAQ

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care does not recommend men get screened for prostate cancer with a PSA test because the harms outweigh the benefits. The harms of screening include: false positives, over-diagnosis, infection, erectile dysfunction, urine leakage and biopsy complications.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Prostate cancer - 1000-Person tool

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    The Canadian Task Force on Prevent Health Care does not recommend men get screened for prostate cancer with a PSA test. The potential harms of screening and follow-up treatment do not outweigh the small benefits.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Prostate cancer: Infographic

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    Prostate cancer screening with a PSA test is not recommended because there are more potential harms than benefits.
  • Evidence Summary

    Communication skills training for healthcare professionals working with people who have cancer

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2013)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Risks and benefits, age 50-69

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    Your risk of dying from breast cancer is slightly reduced if you have regular screening. However, regular screening increase your chance of a false positive result, a biopsy and having part or all of a breast removed unnecessarily.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer Screening video

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    Women ages 50-74 should have a mammogram every 2 to 3 years, if they are not at high risk of breast cancer. Discuss with your doctor whether you should have a mammogram if you are over age 75.
  • Evidence Summary

    Multidimensional rehabilitation programmes for adult cancer survivors

    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (2013)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cervical cancer: Patient algorithm

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    A Pap test screens for cervical cancer. It recommended that sexually active women under the age of 70 have one every 3 years. Screening is not recommended for those older than 70 if your last 3 Pap tests were negative.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cervical cancer: Patient FAQ

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommends women over the age of 25 get a Pap test every three years to screen for cervical cancer. This resource includes information about the Pap test and what an abnormal test result means.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Melanoma

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    Prevent melanoma (skin cancer): avoid sunburns and tanning booths, cover your skin in the sun and use UV protection such as sunscreen. Some sun exposure is necessary to produce vitamin D. If you are at high risk for melanoma have regular checkups with a clinician.
  • Evidence Summary

    Screening for lung cancer

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2013)
  • Evidence Summary

    Screening for prostate cancer

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2013)
  • Evidence Summary

    Physical activity for women with breast cancer after adjuvant therapy.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2018)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A Summary for Adults and Their Caregivers.

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps people diagnosed with head and neck cancer to decide on whether or not to have radiation therapy by comparing the benefits and side effects of both options. It also outlines the four different type of radiation therapy that you can receive.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A Summary for Adults and Their Caregivers.

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps people diagnosed with head and neck cancer to decide on whether or not to have radiation therapy by comparing the benefits and side effects of both options. It also outlines the four different type of radiation therapy that you can receive.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Lung cancer - 1000-person tool

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    If you are between 55 and 74 and are currently or used to be a smoker, you should consider getting tested for lung cancer. You should speak with your health care provider about getting tested using a low-dose CT scan once a year for three years.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for colorectal cancer

    Canadian Cancer Society
    The Canadian Cancer Society recommends men and women over age 50 have a stool test at least every 2 years to test for colorectal cancer. You are at a higher risk if you have had this cancer before, have inflammatory bowel disease or if you have a family history.
  • Evidence Summary

    Skin cancer screening is not backed by current research

    JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association (2016)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for ovarian cancer: Consumer fact sheet

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
    Women who are not at risk for ovarian cancer should avoid ovarian screening. Ovarian screening can give false-positive results which can lead to unnecessary surgery. Talk to your doctor about your individual risk factors and preferences before making a decision about cancer screening.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Physical activity and cancer

    National Cancer Institute
    Physical activity can lower your chance of getting cancer. Exercise moderately for at least 2.5 hours every week. Exercise may also help improve your quality of life if you are a cancer survivor.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Localised prostate cancer - intermediate risk

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps men with localized, intermediate-risk prostate cancer to decide on treatment options. It facilitates the process by outlining and comparing five treatment options: watch and wait, active surveillance, low dose brachytherapy, radiotherapy and neoadjuvant hormones, and surgery.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    Localised prostate cancer - intermediate risk

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps men with localized, intermediate-risk prostate cancer to decide on treatment options. It facilitates the process by outlining and comparing five treatment options: watch and wait, active surveillance, low dose brachytherapy, radiotherapy and neoadjuvant hormones, and surgery.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Basal Cell Skin Cancer: Should I Have Surgery or Use Medicated Cream?

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps people with basal cell skin cancer considering treatment decide on whether to have surgery or use medicated creams by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    Basal Cell Skin Cancer: Should I Have Surgery or Use Medicated Cream?

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps people with basal cell skin cancer considering treatment decide on whether to have surgery or use medicated creams by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options.
  • Web Resource Rating

    A Patchwork of Life - One Woman's Story, For Women Making Breast Cancer Treatment Decisions.

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer to decide on treatment options by outlining and comparing two options: mastectomy and breast conserving surgery (lumpectomy).
  • Patient Decision Aid

    A Patchwork of Life - One Woman's Story, For Women Making Breast Cancer Treatment Decisions.

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer to decide on treatment options by outlining and comparing two options: mastectomy and breast conserving surgery (lumpectomy).
  • Web Resource Rating

    Uterine (endometrial) cancer

    Patient.co.uk
    Uterine cancer is most likely to occur in women in their 50s and 60s. If uterine cancer is found at an early stage, there is a good chance of a cure. Talk to your doctor if you experience vaginal bleeding past menopause, bleeding between periods, or bleeding after sex.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for colorectal (bowel) cancer

    Patient.co.uk
    Symptoms of bowel cancer include bleeding from the rectum and change in bowel movements. Screening with tests such as the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and flexible sigmoidoscopy can detect cancer early when it is easier to treat. Details about these tests in this resource.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Mammogram screening guidelines

    Our Bodies, Ourselves
    The United States Preventive Task Force (USPSTF) recommends women over 40 talk to their doctor about the benefits and harms of getting a mammogram. Women between 50 and 74 should get a mammogram every two years. Check your local guidelines for more information.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer screening

    Health Link B.C.
    If you are between 50 and 74 years of age, you should have regular mammograms to test for breast cancer every 2-3 years. If you are over the age of 75, talk to your doctor before going for breast cancer screening.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cervical Cancer: Screening

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
    The US Preventive Services Task Force does not recommend that women over the age of 65 get screened for cervical cancer unless they are at high risk or have not been screened before. Cervical cancer screening is not recommended for women who have had a hysterectomy and removal of the cervix.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for lung cancer: Consumer fact sheet

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that adults between the ages of 55-80 who have been heavy smokers in the past 15 years be screened for lung cancer every year.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for cervical cancer

    Canadian Cancer Society
    You may be at a higher risk for cervical cancer if you have genital warts, HPV, a weak immune system, or other cancers in the anus or vulva. Talk to your doctor about your risk and your need for pap or HPV tests. Links in this resource to diagnosis & treatment information, as well as questions to ask your doctor.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Pap test

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Pap tests every 1-3 years are recommended for women over the age of 21 who have been sexually active. Talk to your doctor about whether you need a pap test if you are over age 69 or have had a hysterectomy. Learn about preparing for a pap test, the risks and results in this resource.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Vitamin, mineral and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: Consumer fact sheet

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
    Healthy adults should not take vitamin E or beta carotene supplements to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer. Taking beta carotene supplements can increase chances of lung cancer if you are already at risk.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Colorectal cancer test recommendations

    Health Link B.C.
    Colorectal testing every 1-2 years is recommended for people between ages 50 and 74. Your doctor may recommend screening before age 50 and more often if you have an increased risk of this type of cancer (eg. family history of colon cancer, polyps or Crohn's disease).
  • Web Resource Rating

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in adults

    UpToDate - patient information
    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a slowly developing cancer. Careful monitoring can help determine if and when treatment is necessary. People with advanced CLL are treated with chemotherapy and immunotherapy.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Bladder cancer treatment; invasive cancer

    UpToDate - patient information
    70% of bladder cancer cases are not invasive. Surgery to remove the bladder is the most common treatment for invasive bladder cancer. This resource provides details, including answers to the common question, "Where will the urine go?"
  • Web Resource Rating

    Bladder cancer treatment; non-muscle invasive (superficial) cancer

    UpToDate - patient information
    Surgery to remove the tumour is the most common treatment for bladder cancer, often followed by chemotherapy. Close follow up by your doctor is important as bladder cancer often comes back.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer screening

    UpToDate - patient information
    Breast cancer screening includes tests to find breast cancer at an early stage. The chance of dying from breast cancer has declined over the past few years, partly because of screening. This website reviews different types of screening as well as how often to go.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Early stage breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women

    UpToDate - patient information
    Breast cancer found early can often be cured. This resource gives information about different breast cancer treatment options for postmenopausal women.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Early stage breast cancer treatment in premenopausal women

    UpToDate - patient information
    Breast cancer found early can often be cured. This resource gives information about different breast cancer treatment options for premenopausal women.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer screening: When should I start having mammograms?

    Health Link B.C.
    Use this decision aid to help understand your choices about breast cancer screening, including the risks and benefits of mammograms.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Patient algorithm

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommends women between 50 and 74 years old who are not at high risk get screened for breast cancer every 2 to 3 years. Talk to your doctor about screening options if you are at high risk or over 74 years old.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Patient FAQ

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    This resource includes frequently asked questions about breast cancer, including: Who is considered high risk? What are the harms associated with mammography? and Why is routine screening NOT recommended for women 40-49 years?
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Risks and benefits, age 70-74

    Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    Your chances of dying from breast cancer can be lowered by having regular screening. There are risks related to mammograms however, including false positives, unnecessary biopsies or surgery.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for oral cancer: Consumer fact sheet

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
    There is not enough evidence to know if the benefits of oral cancer screening outweigh the harms for people without symptoms. Reduce your risk of oral cancer: don't smoke and drink alcohol only in moderation. See a doctor if you have unusual lumps or bumps in your mouth or on your lips.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Detecting non-melanoma skin cancer

    Informed Health Online
    Skin changes are a normal part of aging. See your doctor if you have a new mole, growth or spot that hasn't healed after 4 to 8 weeks. This resource describes what to look for.
  • Evidence Summary

    Partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2016)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Adjuvant medical therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer

    UpToDate - patient information
    Women with HER2 positive breast cancer tumours may benefit from chemotherapy and targeted treatment. Read about treatment options here and discuss your options with your doctor.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Dance therapy for people with cancer

    Evidently Cochrane
    Dance therapy does not appear to have a large benefit on improving physical or psychological symptoms of people with cancer, such as depression, fatigue or body image. However, you should dance if it helps you feel better.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Oral cryotherapy: Preventing mouth soreness and ulcers in people having cancer treatments

    Evidently Cochrane
    Oral cryotherapy means keeping the mouth cold with ice, iced water or iced foods. This approach can safely help prevent mouth soreness and ulcers in people having cancer treatments.
  • Evidence Summary

    Non-surgical versus surgical treatment for oesophageal cancer.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2016)
  • Evidence Summary

    Blood CEA levels for detecting recurrent colorectal cancer.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2015)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Living with cancer: Stress

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Ask for help or join a support group if you are having trouble coping with stress after or during your cancer treatment. Post-traumatic stress disorder after cancer is rare, but symptoms include flashbacks and avoiding places or people associated with your treatment.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Multiple myeloma treatment

    UpToDate - patient information
    There has been an improvement in survival of patients with multiple myeloma over the past 30 years. Treatment can include chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant. Treatment recommendations are often related to a person's age - details in this resource.
  • Evidence Summary

    Antidepressants for the treatment of depression in people with cancer.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2015)
  • Evidence Summary

    Taxane-containing regimens for metastatic breast cancer.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2015)
  • Web Resource Rating

    WHO report says eating processed meat is carcinogenic: Understanding the findings

    Harvard School of Public Health
    Red meat and processed meat may increase your risk of cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. For a healthy diet, reduce your intake of red meat and avoid processed meat. This resource answers other questions about the report.
  • Evidence Summary

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2015)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Secondhand smoke: Avoid dangers in the air

    Mayo Clinic
    Secondhand smoke can lead to heart disease, lung disease and cancer. Make your home, car and workplace smoke-free environments and avoid areas where smoking is allowed.
  • Evidence Summary

    Web-based support benefits caregivers of cancer patients

    Oncology Nursing Forum (2015)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for breast cancer

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Women aged 50-69 should have a mammogram to test for breast cancer every two years. If you are over 70, talk to your doctor to decide if you should continue. If breast cancer runs in your family, you may need more frequent tests. This resource includes questions to ask your healthcare team.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Digital mammography: Is newer always better?

    National Women’s Health Network
    Film and digital mammograms are not very different from each other. Both are just as accurate at detecting breast cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Preventive (prophylactic) mastectomy: Surgery to reduce breast cancer risk.

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women at high risk for breast cancer to decide on whether or not to get preventative (prophylactic) mastectomy by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options. It includes other options for reducing the risk such as medication, breast cancer screening, surgery to remove the ovaries, and healthy lifestyle.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Prophylactic oophorectomy: Preventing cancer by surgically removing your ovaries.

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations decide on whether or not to have a prophylactic oophorectomy by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options. It includes alternative options such as increasing screening for ovarian cancer and birth control pills.
  • Web Resource Rating

    OvDex: The Oophorectomy Decision Explorer.

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women at increased risk of ovarian cancer to decide on whether or not to have surgery to remove ovaries and fallopian tubes by outlining and comparing the two options.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    Preventive (prophylactic) mastectomy: Surgery to reduce breast cancer risk.

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women at high risk for breast cancer to decide on whether or not to get preventative (prophylactic) mastectomy by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options. It includes other options for reducing the risk such as medication, breast cancer screening, surgery to remove the ovaries, and healthy lifestyle.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    Prophylactic oophorectomy: Preventing cancer by surgically removing your ovaries.

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations decide on whether or not to have a prophylactic oophorectomy by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options. It includes alternative options such as increasing screening for ovarian cancer and birth control pills.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    OvDex: The Oophorectomy Decision Explorer.

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women at increased risk of ovarian cancer to decide on whether or not to have surgery to remove ovaries and fallopian tubes by outlining and comparing the two options.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cancer prevention: 7 tips to reduce your risk

    Mayo Clinic
    To help prevent cancer: avoid tobacco and intense sun exposure, exercise, maintain a healthy body weight and practice safe sex. Certain immunizations may also help and identifying cancer early increases your chances of successful treatment.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Colon polyps

    Mayo Clinic
    Signs of colon polyps include abdominal pain, blood in stool or a change in bathroom habits. It is important to get screened if you are at risk since some polyps can develop into colon cancer. Many polyps can be removed during screening.
  • Evidence Summary

    Early palliative care for adults with advanced cancer.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2017)
  • Evidence Summary

    Oxycodone for cancer-related pain.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2017)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma in adults

    UpToDate - patient information
    DLBCL is a cancer of the lymphocytes. It is more common in women and older adults. You may be treated with chemotherapy and immunotherapy. This resource provides detailed information about the disease.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Follicular lymphoma in adults

    UpToDate - patient information
    Follicular lymphoma is a cancer of the white blood cells. Older adults, women, and certain ethnicities are at a higher risk. Symptoms include swelling in your lymph nodes like the neck, armpit and groin. If you find swelling, ask your doctor about screening.
  • Web Resource Rating

    High-grade glioma in adults

    UpToDate - patient information
    Primary brain tumors are cancers that develop in the brain. Gliomas cause symptoms like memory loss, headache and seizures. Treatment can include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation. Detailed information about gliomas in this resource.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Meningioma

    UpToDate - patient information
    Meningiomas are brain tumors that develop in the tissue around the brain and spine. Many people have no symptoms. This type of cancer is treated with surgery or radiation. This resource includes more details.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Primary low-grade glioma in adults

    UpToDate - patient information
    Primary brain tumours are cancers that develop in the brain. Symptoms can include seizures, headaches and difficulty concentrating. Treatment includes surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Detailed information about gliomas in this resource.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Putting the heart into palliative care

    Evidently Cochrane
    There is a lot of research on end of life care for people dying from cancer but not as much for other diseases. More research needs to focus on heart failure and end of life care.
  • Web Resource Rating

    An update: New evidence on vitamins

    Evidence-based Living
    Eating a healthy, balanced diet is enough to satisfy your daily vitamin requirements. Unless your diet is lacking in some way, you do not need to take vitamins. Vitamins do little to prevent asthma, cancer or ear infections.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast Cancer: What Should I Do if I'm at High Risk?

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women at high risk for breast cancer to decide what to do. It outlines options such as getting extra checkups and testing, take medicine, have surgery to remove both breasts and have surgery to remove your ovaries and compares the benefits, risks, and side effects of each option.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    Breast Cancer: What Should I Do if I'm at High Risk?

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women at high risk for breast cancer to decide what to do. It outlines options such as getting extra checkups and testing, take medicine, have surgery to remove both breasts and have surgery to remove your ovaries and compares the benefits, risks, and side effects of each option.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast Reconstruction After a Mastectomy?

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women decide on whether or not to have breast reconstruction after mastectomy by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast Reconstruction After a Mastectomy?

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women decide on whether or not to have breast reconstruction after mastectomy by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Alcohol and cancer risk

    National Cancer Institute
    Drinking alcohol can increase your risk of getting certain types of cancer. Risk of some cancers are even greater for people who drink and smoke. Follow drinking guidelines to help lower your risk (details in this resource).
  • Web Resource Rating

    Alcohol use and cancer

    American Cancer Society
    Alcohol is linked to many different types of cancer. Drinking alcohol regularly increases risk of head and neck, esophageal, liver, breast, or colorectal cancer. The more alcohol you drink, the higher your risk. Recommended alcohol limits are no more than 2 drinks per day for men and 1 drink a day for women.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in adults

    UpToDate - patient information
    Chronic myeloid leukemia is a slow growing cancer of the blood or bone marrow. Details about treatment options - including medications and stem cell transplant - are included in this resource.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Hodgkin lymphoma in adults

    UpToDate - patient information
    Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of the body's lymphatic system. The most common symptom is a painless, swollen lymph node in the neck. Treatments include radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cysts

    Mayo Clinic
    Breast cysts are common. Your doctor might recommend tests to make sure that the cysts are not cancerous. If the cysts are causing pain, try a well-fitting bra, warm or cool compresses, or over-the-counter pain medication if necessary. Your doctor might recommend aspiration to empty the cysts.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer guide to diagnosis and treatment

    UpToDate - patient information
    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the US. The death rate has declined, partly due to increased screening and improved treatment. When found and treated early it is often curable. This website gives information about diagnosing and treating breast cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer

    UpToDate - patient information
    A family history of breast or ovarian cancer can increase your risk of getting the disease. Consider genetic counseling and testing if you are at high risk. Women with BRCA gene mutations are often advised to have more frequent cancer screening.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Former smokers and lung cancer

    Berkeley Wellness
    Low dose CT scans may help find early signs of lung cancer in people who are at high risk of developing the disease. If you are between 55 to 80 and have a history of smoking, speak to your doctor about medical tests used to diagnose lung cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Finding lung cancer early

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Know the symptoms of lung cancer (details in this resource) and get checked regularly. Early diagnosis improves the chances of successful treatment. Current research is exploring benefits of using CT scans vs chest x-rays.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Factors that modify breast cancer risk in women

    UpToDate - patient information
    Lower your risk of breast cancer by exercising, not smoking and eating healthy. Environment, some medications and estrogen exposure can increase your risk. Some of the things you cannot change about your risk are age, gender, ethnicity, and family history. Regular screenings help reduce your risk of dying of cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Benefits and limitations of mammography

    Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation
    Mammograms to detect breast cancer can lead to better treatment success, but also more tests, false negatives and over-treatment. Talk to your doctor about your risk factors when choosing whether to have a mammogram.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Bone marrow transplantation (stem cell transplantation)

    UpToDate - patient information
    Bone marrow transplantation is used for treating some types of cancer. This website provides detailed information about bone marrow transplants, as well as procedures and possible side effects.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Common breast problems

    UpToDate - patient information
    Breast lumps, breast pain, nipple discharge and changes in breast skin are common breast problems. They can occur at all ages and for many different reasons. See your doctor if you develop any changes in your breasts.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Lung cancer screening

    Mayo Clinic
    If you are a long-time smoker, talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of lung cancer screening. Lung cancer is more likely to be cured if found in its early stages.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Skin examination

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Get a skin exam if you have a family history of skin cancer. Check your skin regularly for changes in size, colour or shape of moles and marks. Learn the ABCDE rule or the seven point checklist to recognize the differences between normal moles and melanoma.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Reducing your risk for melanoma

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Melanoma is a type of skin cancer. To reduce your risk use sunscreen, cover your skin, sit in the shade and wear sunglasses. Do not use indoor tanning beds. Check your skin regularly for changes in the shape, colour or size of moles and birthmarks.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Finding melanoma early

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Symptoms of melanoma (a type of skin cancer) include: changes in moles or spots on the skin, new marks, asymmetric moles, a mole without a clear border, or a mole that looks different from others. You may be at more risk if family members have had melanoma.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Melanoma: Checking your skin

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Check your skin for changes in a room with good lighting and with a mirror. Look for lumps, scaly red patches, new moles or marks, changes in shape, colour, size or texture of moles or birthmarks, and non-healing areas of your skin.
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    Finding non-melanoma skin cancer early

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Symptoms of non-melanoma skin cancer include: a non-healing sore, lumps on skin, red patches and waxy looking skin. Talk to your doctor if you have any of these symptoms, or if you have a history of skin cancer.
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    Bladder cancer diagnosis and staging

    UpToDate - patient information
    Blood in your urine and mid-back pain are common symptoms of bladder cancer. See your doctor to have your kidneys, bladder and urethra checked if you have any of these symptoms.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Take a look: Avoiding unnecessary surgery in pancreatic cancer

    Evidently Cochrane
    If CT scan results show possible cancer in your pancreas, speak with your doctor about laparoscopy to help with diagnosis. Laparoscopy can lower the risk of unnecessary surgery.
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    Can sentinel node assessment help women with vulval cancer avoid unnecessary surgery?

    Evidently Cochrane
    Women with vulval cancer and groin metastases may require surgery. A type of test called a sentinel node assessment can lower the need for surgery by 70%. Speak with your doctor about your options.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment in adults

    UpToDate - patient information
    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a blood cancer. Chemotherapy is a common treatment - side effects include hair loss, vomiting, and infection. More information related to treatment and specific medications for ALL is available in this resource.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment in adults

    UpToDate - patient information
    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Common treatments are chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. AML in older adults can be more difficult to treat.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Facts about breast implants

    Our Bodies, Ourselves
    Risks of breast implants include breakage, numbness in the breast or nipples, infection and the need for more surgeries. Breast implants may also delay detection of breast cancer. Talk with your doctor and understand the risks before you decide to undergo surgery.
  • Web Resource Rating

    The evidence on cigar-smoking

    Evidence-based Living
    Smoking cigars significantly increases your risk of developing cancer and heart disease, even if you do not inhale the smoke.
  • Web Resource Rating

    The case for taking aspirin

    Evidence-based Living
    Evidence has shown that aspirin can help reduce the risk of heart disease. Now there is also evidence that aspirin can help reduce the risk of developing cancer or slow the spread of cancer to new parts of the body.
  • Evidence Summary

    Oral tapentadol for cancer pain.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2015)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Multiple myeloma symptoms, diagnosis, and staging

    UpToDate - patient information
    Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Growth of these cells leads to bone pain, fractures and other complications. Blood and bone marrow tests are used for diagnosis.
  • Evidence Summary

    Corticosteroids for the management of cancer-related pain in adults.

    Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2015)
  • Web Resource Rating

    Risk reduction strategies for vaginal cancer

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Get the HPV vaccine, limit your sexual partners and use a condom to lower your risk of vaginal cancer. Have regular pap tests and avoid smoking. This resource includes questions to ask your doctor about vaginal cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Menopause hormone therapy and breast cancer

    National Women’s Health Network
    Hormone therapy for menopause can increase the risk of cancer and blood clots. Hormone therapy should only be used as a last resort for severe menopause symptoms and only for a short time.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Stomach (gastric) cancer

    Patient.co.uk
    Treatment can often slow the progress of stomach cancer, and the earlier it is diagnosed, the better. Discuss treatment options with a specialist who knows your case.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Providing guidance on lung cancer screening to patients and physicians

    American Lung Association
    Quit smoking to prevent lung cancer. Chest X-rays should not be used to diagnose lung cancer. Low-dose CT screening should only be used for certain patients. Your doctor will tell you if you should be screened.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Alternative cancer treatments: 11 options to consider

    Mayo Clinic
    Alternative cancer treatments such as exercise, yoga, acupuncture, aromatherapy, massage therapy, hypnosis, music therapy, and meditation may offer relief from your symptoms. They may help with anxiety, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, difficulty sleeping, and stress.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Your treatment, your choice

    Evidently Cochrane
    Treatment options for breast cancer include medications, chemotherapy and surgery. Recent evidence shows the drug trastuzumab (Herceptin®) can reduce cancer progression by more than one third. Speak with your doctor about treatment options, talk to other patients about their experiences, understand the latest evidence on breast cancer treatments and use a decision aid (links in this resource).
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer: Follow-up care

    Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation
    Follow-up care is important after breast cancer treatment is over. It is recommended you visit your doctor for a check-up every three to six months for three years after you complete your treatment, every six to twelve months for the next two years, and once a year after that. Tell your doctor about any new symptoms or any treatment side effects that do not go away.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Which approach to breast cancer is right for you?

    Our Bodies, Ourselves
    Women with cancer can now opt for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM). This option is for women with cancer who choose to remove their healthy breast. Details about the pros and cons of this approach in this resource.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast-Conserving Surgery or a Mastectomy for Early-Stage Cancer?

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women with early-stage breast cancer considering treatment options decide on whether to have breast-conserving surgery or a mastectomy by comparing the benefits, risks and side effects of both options.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast-Conserving Surgery or a Mastectomy for Early-Stage Cancer?

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps women with early-stage breast cancer considering treatment options decide on whether to have breast-conserving surgery or a mastectomy by comparing the benefits, risks and side effects of both options.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cancer information: Your healthcare team

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Your cancer health care team will help treat your cancer, provide you with physical & emotional support and help you navigate the healthcare system. The team may include many different types of professionals (details in this resource).
  • Web Resource Rating

    Finding testicular cancer early

    Canadian Cancer Society
    You may be at higher risk for testicular cancer if you are missing one or both testicles, have a family or personal history of testicular cancer or have Klinefelter syndrome. Learn what is normal for your testicles and see your doctor if you notice any changes.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cancer journey: Recently diagnosed

    Canadian Cancer Society
    If you have been recently diagnosed with cancer, you will have a lot of questions. This webpage tries to answer some of the most common ones, and provides coping techniques.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Reducing your risk for kidney cancer

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Limit your risk of kidney cancer by avoiding smoking, being active and maintaining a healthy weight. Test your blood pressure and talk to your doctor about ways to lower high blood pressure. Avoid exposure to dangerous chemicals.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Reducing your risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Reduce your risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: avoid exposure to pesticides and hazardous chemicals, eat foods low in fat, eat less meat and dairy and maintain a healthy weight. This resource includes questions to ask your doctor about non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Finding non-Hodgkin lymphoma early

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma can be more successful if found early. Get regular health checkups and see your doctor if you have swollen lymph nodes, a skin rash, unexplained fatigues or fever, bad night sweats or unexplained weight loss.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Finding uterine cancer early

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Symptoms of uterine cancer include: vaginal bleeding between periods, after menopause, and/or with intercourse, pain during intercourse, unusual vaginal discharge or pelvic pain. Refer to this resource for factors that put you at higher risk for uterine cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Finding prostate cancer early

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Talk to your doctor about prostate cancer screening if you have trouble with urination (peeing). Two tests are often used in combination: a digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen tests. You may be at higher risk for prostate cancer if you have African ancestry or have a family history of prostate cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast Cancer: Should I Have Chemotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer?

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps people with early-stage breast cancer to decide on whether or not to have chemotherapy after surgery by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options.
  • Patient Decision Aid

    Breast Cancer: Should I Have Chemotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer?

    OHRI
    This patient decision aid helps people with early-stage breast cancer to decide on whether or not to have chemotherapy after surgery by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Adjuvant therapy: Treatment to keep cancer from returning

    Mayo Clinic
    Adjuvant therapy is a treatment meant to keep cancer from coming back. Some forms of this therapy include chemotherapy, hormone therapy and radiation therapy. Talk to your doctor about risks and side effects.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Atypical hyperplasia of the breast

    Mayo Clinic
    Atypical hyperplasia is a precancerous condition that affects cells in the breast. Treatment usually involves surgery to remove the abnormal cells. Breast cancer screening is highly recommended.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Talking about cancer

    Canadian Cancer Society
    Talking about cancer with others can be hard. This resource provides information on how people may react, what to do if you don’t want to talk about cancer and suggestions for telling loved ones about your diagnosis.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Malignant wounds

    Canadian Virtual Hospice
    Malignant wounds are open cancerous sores on the skin. Treatment goals are to manage pain, bleeding, smell, infection, and emotional distress and to improve quality of life.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cancer survivors: Managing your emotions after cancer treatment

    Mayo Clinic
    Cancer survivors may feel emotional and scared. Try to stay busy, take care of your body, be open about emotions and fears and go to all your medical appointments. If you are feeling lonely or need help, talk to a therapist or doctor or attend support groups with other cancer survivors.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cancer pain: Relief is possible

    Mayo Clinic
    Pain medications, weak opioid medications (codeine), and strong opioid medications (morphine, OxyContin) may help with cancer pain. Talk to your doctor about the side effects and find the option that is best for you.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Cancer survivors: Reconnecting with loved ones after treatment

    Mayo Clinic
    Repair any lost relationships after cancer treatments by letting others help you, starting up conversations, and being patient. Stay involved, join support groups, and be prepared to answer questions about your treatment and cancer.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for Breast Cancer

    Cancer Care Ontario
    Finding breast cancer early means a better chance for successful treatment and the cancer is less likely to spread. Mammograms are used as a breast cancer screening tool.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Screening for Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer Care Ontario
    Detecting colorectal cancer early gives you a better chance of being cured. Cancer Care Ontario recommends that all Ontarians between the ages of 50 and 74 receive screening for colorectal cancer every 2 years.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Colorectal cancer risk

    Cancer Care Ontario
    There is a better chance of curing colorectal cancer if it is found early. Cancer Care Ontario recommends you get screened for colectoral cancer every 2 years starting when you are 50 years old. Read more about risk factors, prevention, screening and treatment in this resource.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Lung cancer: Treatment

    Canadian Lung Association
    Treatments for lung cancer depend on your age and stage of lung cancer. Options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, targeted therapies and photodynamic therapy. Treatment goals can be to cure, slow disease progression, reduce symptoms and to improve quality of life.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Lung cancer: Prevention

    Canadian Lung Association
    Lower your risk for lung cancer: do not smoke, avoid second-hand smoke and check your home for radon.
  • Web Resource Rating

    No appetite? How to get nutrition during cancer treatment

    Mayo Clinic
    Your appetite may be affected from cancer or cancer treatment. To help with this, try to eat small amounts frequently, schedule meal times and limit fluids when eating. Keep snacks handy and try exercising to increase your appetite.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Oral cancer screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient information [NCI] - Risks of oral cancer screening

    WebMD
    Not all screening tests are helpful, and most have possible risks. Talk to your doctor about your risk for oral cancer and your need for screening tests.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Eating during cancer treatment: Tips to make food tastier

    Mayo Clinic
    Cancer treatments can alter your sense of taste. Stay away from spices, acidic foods, and hot foods if you have a sore throat. Use different sauces, marinades and seasonings, and add sugar or syrup to make food tastier. Add more dairy to make food less sweet.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Ovarian cysts

    NHS Choices
    For most women, ovarian cysts are nothing to worry about and will go away with time. But talk to your doctor if you have pain or pressure in your lower abdomen or pelvis, especially if you have these symptoms after menopause.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Breast cancer aware

    NHS Choices
    Get to know how your breasts look and feel. Check them regularly and be aware of changes. Talk to your doctor if you do notice any changes.
  • Web Resource Rating

    Know your prostate

    NHS Choices
    The risk of prostate cancer increases as you age. Get your prostate checked if you need to urinate often, have difficulty or pain when urinating, or have pain during sex.
  • Blog Post

    3 research-based benefits of yoga for healthy aging

    Want to age well? Consider making yoga part of your regular activities.
  • Blog Post

    No one left out: Breaking down cultural barriers to support healthy aging

    Not everyone has the same opportunity to access health promotion programs that can save lives and prevent serious illness. Culturally customized materials and approaches can help.
  • Blog Post

    Weeding out the truth: Cannabis-based medications for cancer patients

    Cannabinoids are active chemicals found in cannabis (marijuana) that are approved for medical use. Research shows they may be a promising way to ease nausea and vomiting from cancer treatment.
  • Blog Post

    Screening for prostate cancer: What you should know about the PSA test

    The PSA test is an option for men thinking about being screened for prostate cancer but the harms may outweigh the benefits.

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