Pain is complex, so there are many treatment options, from medications to mind-body techniques. Pain management involves identifying the source of the problem when possible and using appropriate treatments. Learn more about treatment options below.
Home palliative care a key to respecting end of life wishes
Educational videos, exercise, and neck mobilization were more beneficial for treating neck pain or whip lash than ultrasound or electrical stimulation. Laser therapy, exercise and massage or acupuncture may help with chronic pain. Hard or soft collars did not work.
This patient decision aid helps people considering taking medicine every day to prevent migraines decide on whether or not to use preventive treatment by comparing the benefits, risks and side effects of both options.
This patient decision aid helps older adults (more than 50 years old) who is in a hospital because of a hip fracture decide on methods of managing pain. It outlines options such as using acetaminophen, opioid analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and other treatments and compares the benefits and side effects associated with each option
Bursitis causes painful swelling and stiffness in joints like the shoulder, elbow, hip and knee, and is more likely as you age. Treatments include medication, physical therapy and - in extreme cases - surgery. Tips for prevention and home remedies in this resource.
Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) is caused by calcium pyrophosphate crystals being deposited in joint tissues. Treatment options for the pain and swelling that accompany CPPD include injections and oral medications.
Pain in the front of the shoulder can be a tendon injury, often from overuse or wear and tear. Until your symptoms get better, try to avoid lifting heavy items and reaching motions. Frist line treatment options also include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. For more severe cases, physical therapy and surgery may help.
Gout is a painful condition that develops in some people who have high blood levels of urate. This condition can be prevented with anti-inflammatories and by lowering urate with diet changes. The goal of treatment is to reduce pain.
Of all the joints in the body, the knee is at the greatest risk of injury and arthritis. Treatment for pain includes ice, stretching, and strength exercises. Try to avoid activities that put strain on your knees.
Opioids are a type of medicine that can be prescribed by your doctor for chronic pain. Not everyone gets adequate pain relief from opioids and many people can become addicted to this type of medication. Most people should not take opioids for a long time.
Arthroscopic knee surgery involves small incisions to remove damaged tissue. This procedure helps provide short term pain relief, but not long term benefits and there are risks involved. Researchers do not recommend it for middle aged or older adults.
Tendinopathy refers to injuries to the tendons. Age, repetitive movements and certain medical conditions make you more susceptible. To prevent elbow tendinopathy, take breaks from repetitive movements and take care with lifting and gripping objects. Read more information about causes, treatment and prevention in this resource.
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) help relieve pain and inflammation and are some of the most commonly used medicines. NSAIDS may cause complications for people with certain medical conditions or taking certain medications. Read this resource for details and discuss with your doctor.
Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of foot pain and often feels worse when stepping out of bed in the morning. Treatment includes rest, ice, stretches, shoe inserts and pain medication.
Neck pain can be caused by muscle strain, ligament sprains, arthritis or pinched nerves. Most people get better with therapy. Treatments include ice, heat, massage and stretching (examples in this resource).
This patient decision aid helps patients with lumbar spinal stenosis decide on whether or not to have surgery by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options. It also includes alternative options to surgery such as trying medicine, exercise, and/or physical therapy.
If you have chronic pain, cannabis could help. Cannabis can have negative side effects like lowering your blood pressure and increasing your risk of falling. More research is needed about the health effects of cannabis.
Deep vein thrombosis can be caused by prolonged bedrest or sitting for long periods of time. Symptoms include leg pain or swelling in the leg. This condition can be very serious since it increases your risk for pulmonary embolism. If you have signs of DVT, see your doctor.
Leg pain can have many causes including a build-up of fluid in the leg veins. New and lasting leg pain is a good reason to visit your doctor. Support socks or hose can help ease pain from fluid buildup.
This patient decision aid helps individuals with chronic tension headaches that interfere with daily living decide on whether or not to take daily prescription medicine by comparing the benefits, risks, and side effects of both options.
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
Chronic pain is mild to severe pain that lasts longer than six months. Some alternative approaches (acupuncture, yoga, herbal supplements), used in addition to conventional medicine, may help people manage chronic pain. Speak with your doctor before you begin any alternative health approach to make sure it is safe for you.
Chronic pain lasts 3 months or longer and can range from mild to severe. It is common in older adults, but not a normal part of aging. This resource includes answers to frequently asked questions like, "What can I do at home to help my symptoms?"
Breast pain affects many women and is often caused by hormone changes. Breast pain is unlikely a sign of breast cancer. Choose a well-fitting bra, try hot or cold compresses, relaxation and pain relievers. Speak to your doctor if the pain persists or gets worse over time.
Muscle relaxants are used to help reduce or prevent muscle spasms and sometimes anxiety, insomnia or seizures. Only use them when prescribed by your doctor. Muscle relaxants have a number of side effects.
Apply ice for 15-20 minutes a few times each day, use a heating pad and try an over-the-counter pain reliever to help with mild joint pain. See your doctor if you have joint pain with swelling, redness, tenderness or warmth around the joint or if joint pain is caused by an injury.
Some exercises may help to reduce low back pain and dysfunction. Try stretching exercises such as bridges, the drawing in maneuver, leg raises, supermans and partial curls. This resource details how to do each of these exercises.
Medical marijuana is a promising way to treat chronic pain and help reduce muscle spasms for people with MS. There is no evidence it helps treat depression, anxiety or glaucoma. Medical marijuana has numerous side effects and is not federally regulated in the US.
Squatting may help constipation. Use a stool to raise your feet and avoid straining while you are on the toilet. Other tips: drink plenty of water, avoid caffeine, eat more fibre, exercise and take your time on the toilet.
Considering complementary and alternative options for nerve pain? You should know that the current evidence base on the potential benefits and harms of herbal treatments—specifically, nutmeg and St John's wort—is uncertain.
Cannabis is increasingly touted as an effective treatment for a variety of ailments. But does the research support this? Find out whether cannabis is “worth the hype” for three common health conditions.
As you get older, getting from one place to another can be a challenge. To put you on the road to better health, invest in a sturdy pair of shoes and use the power of your own two feet to get you to where you need to be.
Low back pain can make getting through the day challenging enough without worrying about keeping up your exercise regimen. But before you throw in the (gym) towel, read the latest research about the best types of exercise for relieving back pain.
Most people experience pain after surgery and need to take pain killers for at least a few days. Being in charge of their own medications gives patients some control and may result in improved pain relief.
If you’re undergoing surgery or other hospital treatments you’re probably not thinking of boogying to the beat. But research shows music therapy can reduce anxiety and pain and help ease depression and fatigue.
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